Execution of a project and its design is a very crucial stage in any project. It involves not only architects but also builders, contractors, consultants, project manager, site supervisors and labours. As the work progresses step by step, complexity of the project also increases.
So, here are some steps that will help you to understand how to build a project and its design from its very initial stage.
1. APPOINT AN ARCHITECT
Architects form base of any project. They are the one who create a simulation of a building that is going to stand on a site in practicality. Appointing a good architect with innovative skills and a decent experience will help to achieve the goals.
While appointing an architect, an appointment letter should be signed duly as an agreement between both the parties and to understand professional fees of the project initially.
To start design of any building, requirements are the foremost part of the process. The requirement list involves two types of requirement i.e., user requirement in which the owner forms a brief about how he wants to build the project and other one is site requirement which is understood and studied by the architects to meet the needs of the client with respect to existing site conditions.
Document requirements and other project requirements are also part of this process.
3.PROPERTY LEASE/ OWNERSHIP DOCUMENTS
Property lease or ownership documents are must to initiate a process of building a project. A land owner should have all the documents of sale deed/ ownership etc. approved from legal authorities or municipal corporations to start a project.
4. SITE SURVEY
A proper site survey which includes survey of existing physical features such as roads, services, surrounding buildings or structures etc. and contour information is necessary to understand the context of a site. It becomes easier to design a project after understanding the existing site conditions as mentioned above.
5. SKTECH DESIGN AND ROUGH ESTIMATE
Initial design agreement is done with the client by a sketch proposal to check if all the needs are satisfied or not. If the initial design is finalized by the client then the rough estimate of the project is prepared; which includes and specifies the essential things required and its implementation on site.
An estimate is a fee structure which includes rough costing of all the works that will be executed during the construction of a project. It reflects overall rough cost of the project that is going to be executed on site.
6. MUNICIPAL DRAWINGS
Municipal drawings are prepared with all the technical details such as FSI calculations and area calculations with all the rules and regulations that are described in the Development Control and Regulations (DCR) prepared by the authority. Then the drawings are submitted for approval. After approval, further process of the project is continued as per the requirements.
7. WORKING DRAWINGS, SPECIFICATIONS AND TENDER DOCUMENTS
After preparation and approval of municipal drawings, working drawings are prepared which includes all the detailed drawings starting from centre line plans, plinth level plan, beam and slab layout, electrical plans, plumbing layout, etc. All the details and specifications are mentioned in each drawing as per the requirement for the better understanding of the work on site.
Specification list is also separately prepared to mention all the specified materials that will be used in construction as well as its dimensions and physical attributes.
After the preparation of these drawings, tender documents are released by the tenderer which is an offer to carry work as specified in the specifications list. A tender can be different type depending upon the type of the project. It could be for a construction work, demolition work, material supply, cleaning work or painting work, etc. A tender can be public/ open or invited/ closed tender.
As per the tender documents, one contractor is selected for the construction work process under the contract document following the contract act. Then the work order is released from architect in accordance with the owner.
To carry out good construction work from the contractor; Earnest Money Deposit (EMD) is kept from the contractor’s bill. If the work is not completed within the given amount of time then refund of the EMD is denied as per the terms specified in contract.
9. BILL OF QUANTITIES
A bill of quantities is specification of materials required to carry out the construction works or materials used for construction of window or doors etc. All the materials and its quantities should be properly mentioned in the bill as it cannot be changed once the work is started. To change or add any specifications in the bill of quantities a special document has to be passed and approved by the authority.
10. COMPLETION CERTIFICATE
Once the construction work is completed and all the formalities are done as per the contract, then, the building is inspected for next 6 or 8 months or a year for any defect. This is called as defect liability period. If the building is without any defects then it will be given completion certificate by the respected authorities.
Briefly, we can conclude that, above mentioned factors play a crucial role in the construction process of a building step by step. Some of these factors may vary as per the site location and the rules and regulations followed by that particular area. But overall structure of a construction process of a building which is designed is similar to these factors.
We should understand that every process requires a specified time and a team to be carried out as per the requirements and sometimes it might turn into a failure also. To avoid this factor of risk one should always appoint a good workforce and communicate at every stage of the work to check if the work going on is okay or not.
Respecting and following all of the agreements is also one of the important factors to carry out a successful project. In this way, one can assure a successful building of a project and design as per the needs and requirements.